Program on Main Stage
9:00 - 9:10 | Welcome
9:10 - 9:45 | KEYNOTE: Cradle to Cradle Design Innovations - Rethinking the way we make things
by Albin Kälin, EPEA Switzerland GmbH, Switzerland
Cradle to Cradle® Design Innovations define and develop cyclable products.
In regard to differentiation to conventional recycling the quality level of the raw materials remains throughout multiple product lifecycles and only purely “assessed safe chemicals” are used. The products are developed according the model to maintain the quality of raw materials over multiple life cycles taking the production processes, the use and the reutilization into account. This means: No waste, all ingredients are considered as nutrients. The right materials are integrated in defined cycles (metabolism) at the right time and place. Cradle to Cradle Certified™ Product Standard
9:45 - 10:00 | Circular economy in composites: from the wind and aeronautical sectors to the ceramic industry and transport
by Andrés Luengo Baranguán, AIMPLAS - Chemical Recycling Group, Spain
The main objective of the EROS project is the implementation of a real circular economy system, which starts from the recycling of wind blades and waste from the aeronautical sector to close the cycle in its application in other sectors such as the ceramic industry, including supports, frits, enamels and inks, and in the transport sector itself.
In detail, a mechanical recycling will be first conducted, followed by a combination of solvolysis and pyrolysis in order to obtain carbon fibers, glass fibers, and glycols. The consortium is formed by RECICLALIA, KERABEN, FRITTA, SOFITEC and AIMPLAS and ITC-AICE as technological centers.
10:00 - 10:15 | Novel pre-impregnated textiles enabling healable and sustainable composites
by Amaël Cohades, CompPair Technologies Ltd., Switzerland
Composite structures face challenges regarding damage sensitivity, maintenance costs and sustainability. Inspired by nature, CompPair Technologies Ltd. provides innovative pre-impregnated textiles to build composite parts with intrinsic healing functionalities and efficient end-of-life management, enabling cost and time reduction of maintenance activities, extending product lifetime and improving global sustainability. This presentation will cover the benefits of using CompPair products to build structural composites with the capacity to repair themselves in 1 minute, while keeping benchmark mechanical properties. Extending the life-time of composites, along with efficient end-of-life management brings, with CompPair, the first steps towards a circular economy for composites.
10:15 - 10:30 | Smart Circular Bridges using bio-based composite materials
by Patrick Teuffel, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
The construction industry needs to make a shift in material use. However, reliable alternative solutions for improving material efficiency and natural resource use are lacking. The EU's action plan Bio-Economy Strategy stresses the need for a shift towards natural materials.
Despite an increasing market demand, construction industry remains hesitant to implement new natural material applications, because their unknown material properties.
Smart Circular Bridge will design and build two bridges in the Netherlands and one in Germany. Smart Circular Bridge will actively promote the development of composite materials in the construction industry.
10:30 - 10:45 | Sustainable nonwoven composite solutions
by Felix Krug, Tenowo GmbH, Germany
Carbon fiber recycling has been a challenging topic for years. The Tenowo GmbH located in Hof, Germany, processes recycled carbon fibers (rCF) into nonwovens. The idea is to return waste materials and cuttings back into production. The rCF used as raw materials for the production of nonwovens come from woven and non-crimp fabric production or from "end of life" parts.
10:45 - 11:00 | High-Performance Composite with a bio-based carbon content of 100%
by Andrea Todorovic, Motanuniversität Leoben, Austria
The interest in high-performance composites based on renewable resources is growing vigorously. By combining natural fibers and bio-based matrix materials, so-called green composites are obtained. Recently, the authors presented a fully bio-based epoxy resin produced from epoxidized linseed oil (ELSO) and pure crystalline citric acid (CA). The main objective of the present study is now to produce a fully bio-based composite based on the novel ELSO/CA resin matrix and flax fibers, which exhibits a high stiffness and strength. By RTM a novel, highperformance composite with a bio-based carbon fraction of 100 % was produced, which is uncritical in terms of environmental and safety issues.
13:00 - 13:10 | Welcome
13:10 - 13:45 | KEYNOTE: Effective use of Recycled Carbon Fibre Composites
by Kyle Pender, National Composites Center, UK
After widespread adoption in recent years, the aerospace industry has become the dominant user of carbon fibre composites (CFRP). Despite the high value of virgin counterparts, and the environmental impact associated with their production; waste CFRP is widely viewed as a liability under the current paradigm, in part due to a lack in confidence in recyclate reuse applications. This work looks to assist in transforming this waste into a value stream through demonstration of economically viable and environmentally sustainable recycling, reprocessing, and reuse of real-world aerospace CFRP waste. It is anticipated that a demonstration of route-to-market for CFRP recyclates will give confidence in these materials and encourage their uptake in second life composite applications.
13:45 - 14:00 | Start and develop a circular economy project in the sector of thermosetting matrix composites
by Franco Mioni, Gees Recycling, Italy
The Gees Recycling experience of an Italian technological and industrial project aimed at the recovery and recycling of fiber-reinforced composites and expanded thermosets. The birth of the idea, the industrial patent, the prototype line, the transformation into industry, the marketing and positioning of the products, the strategic alliances of the supply chain.
The presentation will illustrate the logic that allowed a sustainable growth of our project, and the importance of marketing strategies well ahead of the provisions of environmental regulations.
At the root of the project is the idea of transforming waste into a new competitive panel on a large scale and with numerous fields of application.
14:00 - 14:15 | Enhancing the Sustainability of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP): Strategies for Effective Recycling as Precious Feedstock in Pyrometallurgy
by Kai Schlögel (RWTH Aachen University), Florian Loose (BAM), Germany
Despite its contribution to tackling climate change by lightweight design, growing CFRP production results in high energy consumption and a global waste generation of 62 kt/a. Therefore, enhancing sustainability of carbon fibers (CF) necessitates effective recycling solutions.
Herein we will give an overview of current recycling processes, discuss their limitations and present a novel approach for safe treatment of CF unsuitable for material recovery. Our project CF Pyro examines feedstock recycling in pyrometallurgical processes, focusing on CF reactivity, process stability and prevention of hazardous WHO fiber release. Besides fundamental experimental breakthroughs, their broader impact on circular economy will be presented.
14:15 - 14:30 | Recycling – downcycling – upcycling, from a machine builder point of view
by Rien van den Aker, Van Wees UD and Crossply Technology b.v., The Netherlands
The latest development regarding the use of residue from UD tapes and patches production will be presented. Basically with thermoplastic composites for optimum sustainability.
A machine will be shown which is capable of making chips/flakes in defined dimensions. This results in the best possible use of this residual material in compression and injection molding.
14:30 - 14:45 | Carbon Fiber Recycling – Well thought out
by Tim Rademacker, Mitsubishi Chemical Advanced Materials GmbH, Germany
The carbon fiber market is rapidly growing worldwide. Carbon fibers (CF) are a popular choice for lightweight and high-performance applications in a wide range of industries due to their thermal and electrical conductivity, lower density combined with high strength and stiffness.
At the same time, the amount of CFRP production waste generated is increasing. MCAM’s waste management facility in Wischhafen focuses not only on the disposal of CFRP waste, but also on the material recovery of high-quality CF. Under the product name carboNXT®, high-quality rCF products are re-introduced to the market.
Not only the costly and energy-intensive manufacturing process of virgin fibers, but also the lack of solutions for the disposal of CFRP materials make recycling of CF inevitable from an economic and ecological point of view. When CFRP components reach the end of their life cycle, they are recycled at the plant in Wischhafen. The pyrolysis plant with a capacity of around 1,000 t/a has been up and running since 2011 and received the German Raw Material Efficiency Award in the same year.
Although the recycling and recovery of high-quality CF under industrial conditions has been sustainably solved for all CFRP waste, potential users and OEMs still have reservations about reusing this high-quality secondary raw material. MCAM focuses on the development of applications for rCF which, accompanied by political framework conditions, could balance economic interests and sustainable solutions.
14:45 - 15:00 | Three technologies for sustainable composites
by Tomas Flanagan, ÉireComposites Teoranta, Ireland
ÉireComposites is an innovative design, manufacturing and testing company, involved in lightweight, high-performance fibre-reinforced composite materials, with an international customer base in aerospace, wind energy, marine, and general automotive sectors. ÉireComposites is involved in three H2020 project relating to sustainable composite materials. The LIBRE project concerns the development of bio-based carbon fibres from lignin, AIRPOXY focuses on the development of thermoset resins with reversible bonds that enable recycling, and CRIMSON will develop a marine energy device using recycled carbon fibre. The presentation provides an overview of these projects and considers the implication for sustainable composites’ manufacturing.
9:00 - 9:10 | Welcome
9:10 - 9:45 | KEYNOTE: Holistic approaches to lightweight technologies as a decisive key for the green mobility of the future
by Marc Fette, Composite Technology Center / CTC GmbH (An AIRBUS Company), Germany
Mobility will continue to be characterized by the movement of masses and by using energy. It is precisely at these points that lightweight design, materials and technologies can be the key enablers to greater efficiency, performance and, above all, ecological sustainability. Nevertheless, the types of mobility and systems differ considerably in terms of requirements, degree of use and service life. Therefore, a holistic view of the value chain and the product life cycle is necessary in order to use lightweight technologies as a decisive key to a “green” and an ecologically sustainable mobility in the future
9:45 - 10:00 | Developments in traction battery housing
by Johannes Haberl, Autoneum Management AG, Switzerland
Electrification of the automotive industry has triggered a massive reengineering of vehicle architectures. New components, as well as the redesign of existing components, trigger the introduction of innovative solutions including new application potential for composites. The presentation will highlight a novel thermoplastic battery pack lid and review the potential to produce other products related to the battery from light weight sandwich constructions.
10:00 - 10:15 | MarineCare – Sustainable boats and water sports equipment
by Jan Janzen, Leibniz-Institut fuer Verbundwerkstoffe, Germany
To improve sustainability in the maritime sector, Leibniz-Institut für Verbundwerkstoffe is cooperating with the companies GREENBOATS GmbH and Swiss CMT AG in the research project "MarineCare". The aim is to develop a sustainable composite sandwich material as well as a corresponding minimal-waste manufacturing process for applications in boats or water sports equipment. The sandwich structure combines a foam core fabricated of recycled PET, obtained from disposable bottles, with face sheets made of recycled carbon fibers (rCF) impregnated with bio-based thermosetting epoxy resin (powder)
10:15 - 10:30 | Carbon Profiles - Efficiency in Production and Application
by Gerret Kalkoffen, Carbon Truck & Trailer GmbH (Carbon TT), Germany
CarbonTT has developed both unique designs and proprietary process knowhow for light and durable components that improve torsional stiffness and crash properties while saving weight and reducing energy consumption. Future vehicle architectures are shifting to composites and CarbonTT is at the forefront of this sustainable development.
10:30 - 10:45 | Waste reduction through automated prepreg manufacturing
by Jacopo Oddone, Voith Composites, Germany
Voith has recently upgraded its direct fiber placement technology, proven in large-scale automotive production, to become the Voith Roving Applicator (VRA) NextGen. It manufactures tailored prepreg stacks that are very easy to handle and process. They are manufactured in a completely automated process and feature an optimized structural design, high drapability and an outstanding surface quality. Thanks to their JIT production and near-net shape design, they reduce waste significantly. They are well suited for both structural and visual components, offering a broad range of applications within the automotive industry. Besides carbon fibers, other materials such as glass or flax fibers can be equally processed.
10:45 - 11:00 | The potential reduction of environmental footprint of automotive structures through novel thermoplastic composites manufacturing routes
by Stephanie Wegmann, Consotrium FHNW (IKT), ETH (CMASLab) and EPFL (LPAC), Switzerland
Three newly developed thermoplastic impregnation processes were analyzed: compression resin transfer molding and melt-thermoplastic resin transfer molding, with both low viscosity thermoplastics, and stamp-forming of hybrid bicomponent fibers where each fiber is individually coated. These processes were compared to conventional thermoset compression resin transfer molding and to stamp forming metal processes with a cradle-to-grave life cycle analysis for the case study of a bonnet.
The results show the potential of the thermoplastic impregnation processes for the production of automobile parts and highlight the role of process and materials parameters, including material waste.
13:00 - 13:10 | Welcome
13:10 - 13:45 | KEYNOTE: Reuse as the key to sustainability – CFRP makes it possible
by Stefan Caba, EDAG, Germany
Sustainability of Products can be provided by the 3Rs – Reduce, Recycle, Reuse. While lightweight design to reduce consumption of resources and recycling is established for numerous components, reuse is established only for very few parts. CFRP shows high durability and thus can be used to create stable and reusable structures.
This concept was proven in different projects, where platforms and energy storage systems were developed. The key to reusability are specificaly developed structures including suitable joining technologies. The concepts, the obstacles and the ways to achieve reusability will be showcased. Consequently new, circular process chains and business opportunities could evolve.
13:45 - 14:00 | Mobile and collaborating systems for the repair and modification of CFRP aircraft structures
by Susanne Kroll, Fraunhofer IWU, Germany
CFRP components at Aircrafts, which need a refurbishment or which are damaged, must be efficiently repaired or modernized. During this processes a minimum ground time has to be adhered. While the repair processes are mainly specified in the Structural Repair Manual, the modifications are usually individual projects. Together with the project partner Elbe Flugzeugwerke, an intelligent process chain was therefore developed that uses mobile and collaborative systems to repair and modify aircrafts like the A350. The focus is on non-destructive testing, milling, modification assembly of a camera in conjunction with a digital workshop.
14:00 - 14:15 | Sustainability in Thermoplastic Composites
by Stefan Seidel, Dirk Bonefeld, Bond Laminates - A company of the LANXESS Group, Germany
Tepex ® as a thermoplastic composite is a sustainable material. Not only because of its usability within resource-saving lightweight construction, but also because the thermoplastic matrix enables material recycling. Tepex ® off-cuts can be shredded and used as short fiber reinforcement in injection molding. Furthermore, fibers and polymers that have already been recycled can also be turned into Tepex ® semi-finished products. And last but not least raw materials from renewable sources such as flax and PLA are feasible solutions for sustainable composites.
14:15 - 14:30 | Natural fibre composites as circular materials in high lightweight applications
by Régis Voillat, Bcomp, Switzerland
Natural fibre composites (NFRP) offer high mechanical properties at low weight thanks to the inherent properties of lignocellulosic fibres. Additional assets include high vibration damping and radio-transparency. Bcomp provides NFRP reinforcement solutions such as ampliTex™ and powerRibs™, for both thermosets and thermoplastics, that are tailored to meet the wide range of needs of the composite industry in sports and leisure, motorsports, automotive and large scale mobility, marine, aerospace and infrastructure. With Waste-to-Energy by incineration, NFRP gives value up to EoL as a partially or even fully bio-based energy source, closing the CO2 cycle and reducing our dependency on fossil resources through well-stablished waste management infrastructure.
14:30 - 14:45 | Use of recycled carbon fibers in composite skeletons for local reinforcement of injection molded parts (3D Skeleton Winding technology – 3DSW)
by Claudia Möhl (DITF Denkendorf), Sascha Kilian (Fraunhofer ICT), Germany
As part of the reCaHit-2 project, DITF Denkendorf and Fraunhofer ICT jointly investigate on approaches for the use of recycled carbon fibers in the local reinforcement of injection molded parts. While DITF is exploring special spinning processes to produce continuous hybrid yarns with high tensile strength on the basis of recycled carbon staple fibers, ICT is developing an adapted 3DSW process for the processing of said hybrid yarns into wound reinforcement skeletons. In addition to the pursued technological approaches and corresponding test results, the presentation also highlights general aspects of carbon fiber recycling.
14:45 - 15:00 | HiPeR highly aligned semi-finished products made of rCF for structural aerospace and automotive applications
by Consortium of Germany: C.A.R. Fibertec, Composite Technology Center, Sächsisches Textilforschungsinstitut, Faserinstitut Bremen;
Japan: Carbon Fiber Recycle Industry Co., Ltd., IHI Logistics and Machinery Corporation, Moriroku Chemicals Company, Toray, ICC
The alliance of Japanese and German companies has set itself the task of developing processes for the production of highly aligned semi-finished products from recycled carbon fibres and their application in automobiles and aircraft. The main objective is to improve the price-performance ratio of recycled carbon fibre semi-finished products by improving the mechanical performance of the semi-finished products through a high degree of alignment of the fibres.
9:00 - 9:10 | Welcome
9:10 - 9:45 | KEYNOTE: Environmental friendly fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) for high performance applications – assessment of the global warming potential (GWP) and related levers
by Andrea Hohmann, Jonas Frank, Fraunhofer IGCV, Germany
At the beginning of the presentation, a general overview of the global warming potential of an FRP structure along the individual life cycle phases is given. On this basis, first possible optimization measures and corresponding challenges are discussed, which will be deepened by the presentations in the session.
In the second section of the presentation, there is a more in-depth look at alternative approaches to material production. Previous studies, show that carbon fiber production including the intermediate products like acrylonitrile (ACN) as well as the matrix systems have a significant share on the environmental impacts of a CFRP structure. If renewable energy sources are applied during stabilization and carbonization, ACN production will in future be one of the largest levers to further reduce the GWP. The presentation focuses therefore on the evaluation of alternative routes for ACN production, using biomass or directly CO2-emissions as raw material. Besides that different process routes for resin production based on the same basic chemicals as the environmental friendly ACN are discussed.
9:45 - 10:00 | Creating circular streams from GFRP composite waste: Re-use and chemical recycling
by Cecilia Mattsson, Alann André, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden
Glass fiber composite (GFRP) waste is a growing global environmental problem since waste from wind, boat, automotive and construction industries go to landfill or incineration. At RISE we have investigated new circular approach for reuse and recycling of End of Life waste in the wind sector i.e. wind turbine blades.
Recent results from chemical recycling with solvolysis/HTL of GFRP to recycled glass fibers and chemical building blocks as well as reuse of partial or whole blades within infrastructure or construction will be presented.
10:00 - 10:15 | Assessing efforts to reduce the environmental impacts of carbon fibre composites in vehicles
by Frida Hermansson, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
This presentation will be about the life cycle assessment of different technology development routes for decreasing the environmental impacts of carbon fibre composites in vehicles. Three main routes were assessed: The use of bio-based raw materials for the fibre production, the use of microwave technology in fibre production, and the recycling of the composites and recovery of the fibres after use. The goal was to assess which of these routes that are more promising for making the environmental impacts of carbon fibre composites in vehicles environmentally competitive to glass fibre composites, what aspects that influence this comparison, and what remaining hot spots might be.
10:15 - 10:30 | Closing the material cycle - Life cycle assessment of glass fiber reinforced plastic recycling
by Michael Bösch, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Institute of Bioenergy and Resource Efficiency, Center for Cleantech and Sustainable Energy Systems, Switzerland
Since no recycling process for glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GRP) has yet been successfully established on the market, the waste material ends up in landfills or is used as substitute fuel for the cement industry. In collaboration with the FHNW, a Swiss start-up is developing a new process to close the material loop. A life cycle assessment was conducted for the recycling process, the resulting materials and the potential applications. The results show that recycling GRP can significantly reduce the ecological footprint of both waste treatment and GRP use.
10:30 - 10:45 | Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Thermoplastic and Thermoset CFRP in Aerospace Applications.
by Chizoba Josphine Ogugua, TU Delft / Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, The Netherlands
Carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRPs) are increasingly used in the aerospace industry due to their excellent specific strength and stiffness. So far, most CFRP structures are realised with a thermosetting matrix, due to their low processing viscosity, low curing temperatures and moderate non-recurring cost, making them suitable for small volume production. Recently thermoplastic CFRPs are seeing increasing interest, owing to their potential for high volume automation, joining, recycling and high intrinsic fracture toughness.
This work quantifies and compares the environmental impact of replacing a thermoset CFRP (CF/Epoxy) aircraft skin panel fabricated using manual collation and autoclave curing with a thermoplastic CFRP panel (CF/polyphenylenesulfide) fabricated using manual collation and press forming. This is achieved by carrying out a cradle to gate life cycle assessment based on ISO 14040 and 14044 standards. The results demonstrate the environmental benefits and limitations of both the thermoplastic and thermoset panels from a life cycle perspective.
10:45 - 11:00 | Using life cycle assessment as reference to plan the production of green bio composites
by Robin Sales, VESO Concept, France
Since 2008, the engineering company VESO has been developing bio-based and recycled composite materials. Our wish is to propose products with low environmental impact. To do this, we carry out life cycle assessment upstream from development. This methodology allows us to identify in advance the actions to be taken in order to reduce the impact of the product. Anticipatory life cycle analysis allows production to be adapted in advance. The life cycle analysis supports our ecodesign approach integrating the use and end-of-life phases, which drive the development of sustainable and recyclable composite materials.